Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Figure 3: Section through the BOF vessel during oxygen blowing. (Ref: Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking And Refining Volume. AISE Steel Foundation, 1998, Pittsburgh PA) In the past, this meant delays for reblowing or adding coolants. In many shops residual slag is blown with nitrogen to coat the barrel and trunion areas of the vessel. This process is known as "slag splashing". Near the end of a campaign, gunning with refractory materials in high wear areas may also be necessary. It oxidizes the carbon and silicon contained in the hot metal liberating great quantities of heat which melts the scrap. There are lesser energy contributions from the oxidation of iron, manganese, and phosphorus. The post combustion of carbon monoxide as it exits the vessel also. The gas is primarily carbon monoxide (CO) from the carbon in the hot metal. The rate of gas evolution is many times the volume of the vessel and it is common to see slag slopping over the lip of the vessel, especially if the slag. The roof and electrodes are raised and are swung to the side of the furnace to allow the scrap charging crane to move a full bucket of scrap into place over the furnace. The bucket bottom is usually a clam shell design - i.e. The long arc maximizes the transfer of power to the scrap and a liquid pool of metal will form in the furnace hearth At the start of melting the arc is erratic and unstable. Wide swings in current are observed accompanied by rapid movement of. Some operations achieve a single bucket charge. Continuous charging operations such as CONSTEEL and the Fuchs Shaft Furnace eliminate the charging cycle. Melting The melting period is the heart of EAF operations. The EAF has evolved into a highly efficient melting apparatus and modern designs.